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Authors: Diane Irvine Duncan, MD, FACS
To assess the process of cell death mechanisms and its effect on clinical results of radio frequency (RF) fat reduction devices. Can moving radio frequency kill fat alone and does hotter temperature create better tissue result in patients?
Materials and methods
In a control study, researchers observed serial scanning electron microscopy sections of fat treated over time by Forma at different maximum temperatures 40, 41, 42 and 43 degrees Celsius. Researchers then looked at the adipose cells immediately following the eighth treatment, at one month following treatment cessation and again at three month following treatment cessation. To better understand the pyroptosis and cryolipolysis process, researchers took control samples of fat tissue injected with saline.
Results and conclusions
At one month and three months all adipocytes had recovered, and no fat death was noted with Forma treatments. Researchers proved bulk heating with radio frequency to be effective in killing fat cells. However, the level of fibrous ingrowth into the adipose layer did not vary significantly with temperature level. Even at 40 degrees there was significant tissue response in treated areas. Therefore clinical results are just as good with lower temperatures and longer treatments when compared to higher temperatures. In another control study for the assessment of cryolipolysis, we observed cell membrane peeling without poration. Lipid droplets were released for a uniformed reduction of adipocyte size. The ideal cell death mechanism includes adipose cell death is not necrosis due to its long downtime nor is it apoptosis for the absence of inflammation. Poroptosis is the best cell death mechanism for fat reduction. Poroptosis is a fractionAL pyroptosis-like mechanism that occurs in devices like Body FX. Body FX with has a moving external radiofrequency which kills fat cells similar to pyroptosis, creating pores in the cell membrane causing cytosol to leak out and the cell to die.